Quick Answer: What Are The Five Cost Concepts?

What are the components of cost?

A cost is composed of three elements – Material, Labour and Expenses.

Each of these three elements can be direct and indirect, i.e., direct materials and indirect materials, direct labour and indirect labour, direct expenses and indirect expenses..

What are average costs?

Definition: The Average Cost is the per unit cost of production obtained by dividing the total cost (TC) by the total output (Q). By per unit cost of production, we mean that all the fixed and variable cost is taken into the consideration for calculating the average cost. Thus, it is also called as Per Unit Total Cost.

What is opportunity cost and example?

Opportunity cost is the profit lost when one alternative is selected over another. The concept is useful simply as a reminder to examine all reasonable alternatives before making a decision. For example, you have $1,000,000 and choose to invest it in a product line that will generate a return of 5%.

What is shutdown cost?

The price of a product below which it is cheaper for a company not to make the product than to continue to sell it. That is, the shut-down price is the price at which the company will begin to lose money for making the product.

What are the types of cost control?

Cost Control Techniques1 – Planning the Project Budget. You would need to ideally make a budget at the beginning of the planning session with regard to the project at hand. … 2 – Keeping a Track of Costs. … 3 – Effective Time Management. … 4 – Project Change Control. … 5 – Use of Earned Value.

What is a costing model?

Cost models are simple equations, formulas, or functions that are used to measure, quantify, and estimate the effort, time, and economic consequences of implementing a SPI method.

What is period cost?

Period costs are all costs not included in product costs. Period costs are not directly tied to the production process. Overhead or sales, general, and administrative (SG&A) costs are considered period costs. … Therefore, period costs are listed as an expense in the accounting period in which they occurred.

What are the 3 types of cost?

Types of costsFixed costs. Fixed costs are costs that do not vary with the level of output in the short term.Variable costs. A variable cost varies in direct proportion with the level of output. … Semi-variable costs. … Total costs. … Direct costs. … Indirect costs.

Is rent a fixed cost?

Unlike variable costs, a company’s fixed costs do not vary with the volume of production. Fixed costs remain the same regardless of whether goods or services are produced or not. … The most common examples of fixed costs include lease and rent payments, utilities, insurance, certain salaries, and interest payments.

What is opportunity cost simple words?

Opportunity cost is the value of the next best thing you give up whenever you make a decision. It is “the loss of potential gain from other alternatives when one alternative is chosen”. … For example, opportunity cost is how much leisure time we give up to work.

What is opportunity cost easy definition?

“Opportunity cost is the value of the next-best alternative when a decision is made; it’s what is given up,” explains Andrea Caceres-Santamaria, senior economic education specialist at the St. Louis Fed, in a recent Page One Economics: Money and Missed Opportunities.

What is an example of a cost?

A direct cost includes raw materials, labor, and expense or distribution costs associated with producing a product. The cost can easily be traced to a product, department, or project. For example, Ford Motor Company (F) manufactures cars and trucks. A plant worker spends eight hours building a car.

What are cost concepts?

CONCEPTS OF COST. When commodities and services are produced, various expenses have to be incurred, e.g., purchase of raw materials, payment to labour, landlord, capitalist, etc. The sum total of the expenses incurred plus the normal profit expected by the producer is called the cost of production.

What are the major types of cost?

There are three major types of costs direct (labor, materials, equipment, other); project overhead; and general and administrative (G&A) overhead.

What type of cost is rent?

Rent expense is a type of fixed operating cost or an absorption cost for a business, as opposed to a variable expense. Rental expenses are often subject to a one- or two-year contract between the lessor and lessee, with options to renew.

Is rent a sunk cost?

A sunk cost refers to a cost that has already occurred and has no potential for recovery in the future. For example, your rent, marketing campaign expenses or money spent on new equipment can be considered sunk costs. A sunk cost can also be referred to as a past cost.

What is single costing?

Join. ▶ Single or Unit or output costing is the method of costing in which cost are ascertained per unit of a single product in a continuous manufacturing activity. Per unit cost is calculated by dividing total production cost by number of units produced. This method is also known as single costing.

What is the formula to calculate average cost?

Average cost (AC), also known as average total cost (ATC), is the average cost per unit of output. To find it, divide the total cost (TC) by the quantity the firm is producing (Q).

What are the 4 types of cost?

Following this summary of the different types of costs are some examples of how costs are used in different business applications.Fixed and Variable Costs.Direct and Indirect Costs. … Product and Period Costs. … Other Types of Costs. … Controllable and Uncontrollable Costs— … Out-of-pocket and Sunk Costs—More items…•

What are the concepts of opportunity cost?

What Is Opportunity Cost? Opportunity costs represent the potential benefits an individual, investor, or business misses out on when choosing one alternative over another. The idea of opportunity costs is a major concept in economics.

What are the types of cost?

Types of CostsFixed Costs (FC) The costs which don’t vary with changing output. … Variable Costs (VC) Costs which depend on the output produced. … Semi-Variable Cost. … Total Costs (TC) = Fixed + Variable Costs.Marginal Costs – Marginal cost is the cost of producing an extra unit.